By M.J. Forrest
This evaluate outlines each one procedure utilized in plastics research after which illustrates which equipment are utilized to procure a selected outcome or piece of compositional info. for instance, polymer and filler id, molecular weight selection, antidegradant quantification and floor research learn equipment are all integrated. round four hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database accompany this overview, to facilitate extra studying.
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Extra resources for Analysis of Plastics, Vol. 13 (2002)(en)(160s)
The most popular include polyamide, polyester and acrylics and they can be used in products as varied as clothing and life rafts. Once again, the infrared microscope is ideal at recording generic polymer identification spectra from individual fibres. , specific polyamide type) and, where a number of fibres are available GPC (molecular weight). Other microscopic techniques, such as optical (aspect ratio), SEM (surface morphology) and EDAX (elemental analysis), Raman microscopy and atomic force microscopy can be used to further characterise the product.
The binding energy of a core level depends principally on the charge on the nucleus of the atom concerned and smaller changes are induced as a result of chemical bonding. 21). 1 atom percent. The analysis area is typically 3-10 mm2 and all the elements with the only exception of hydrogen can be detected. , ester, acid, aldehyde) the oxygen is present in. This ability of XPS to detect oxygen containing functional groups is shown in the narrow and broad scan spectra of PET presented in Figure 15.
If possible, it is advisable to conduct the analysis alongside that of a sample known to be of the correct composition. This ensures that no product specific matrix effects/interference reactions affect the data obtained and hence the conclusions reached. A surprisingly large number of failure problems can be solved by carrying out a simple series of tests including a polymer identification check by IR, a bulk compositional analysis by TGA and a molecular weight determination. Molecular weight determination is very important in the case of plastics because of the wide use (sometimes unauthorised) of regrind material.