Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits by Almudena Suarez

By Almudena Suarez

Provides simulation options that considerably bring up designers' keep an eye on over the oscillationin self reliant circuits

This e-book allows a valid knowing of the free-running oscillation mechanism, the start-up from the noise point, and the institution of the steady-state oscillation. It bargains with the operation ideas and major features of free-running and injection-locked oscillators, coupled oscillators, and parametric frequency dividers.

Analysis and layout of self reliant Microwave Circuits provides:

  • An exploration of the most nonlinear-analysis equipment, with emphasis on harmonic stability and envelope brief methods

  • Techniques for the effective simulation of the commonest independent regimes

  • A presentation and comparability of the most stability-analysis equipment within the frequency domain

  • A specific exam of the instabilization mechanisms that delimit the operation bands of independent circuits

  • Coverage of ideas used to do away with universal kinds of undesired habit, reminiscent of spurious oscillations, hysteresis, and chaos

  • A thorough presentation of the oscillator part noise

  • A comparability of the most methodologies of phase-noise analysis

  • Techniques for self sustaining circuit optimization, in keeping with harmonic balance

  • A attention of alternative layout ambitions: presetting the oscillation frequency and output energy, expanding potency, editing the temporary period, and implementing operation bands

Analysis and layout of self sustaining Microwave Circuits is a invaluable source for microwave designers, oscillator designers, and graduate scholars in RF microwave design.

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Extra resources for Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits

Example text

Vo , . . , VN ) + Edc = 0 .. 33) = Vk + ZL (kωo )Ik (V−N , . . , Vo , . . , VN ) = 0 .. HN = VN + ZL (N ωo )IN (V−N , . . , Vo , . . 4 FREQUENCY-DOMAIN FORMULATION OF AN OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT 33 where Hk are complex error functions. Note that the bias sources should be included in the dc term. 33). The total number of equations is 2N + 1, as each harmonic function Hk has real and imaginary parts, except the one corresponding to dc, given by Ho , which is real valued. 33) constitutes the harmonic balance formulation of the oscillator circuit, containing a single nonlinearity of current type only.

The second equation, Im[YT ] = 0, implies the existence of a resonance at the oscillation frequency. The next objective is to obtain the nonlinear admittance function YN (V , ω), which constitutes the model of the active element in the approximate oscillator analysis. The model is based on use of the describing function. For a sinusoidal describing function [16], the input signal is represented by a sinusoid. Considering the nonlinearity i(t) = i(v(t)), the describing function will provide an admittance model YN (V ), depending on the voltage amplitude V .

This will show how the previous analysis at the fundamental frequency generalizes to N harmonic terms. The objective of introducing this formulation here is to provide the necessary background for the phase noise analysis in Chapter 2 and the analysis of frequency dividers in Chapter 4. 1 Steady-State Formulation For the frequency-domain analysis of a given nonlinear circuit, the circuit variables are represented in a Fourier series. For simplicity, a single state variable v(t) and a single nonlinearity of current type i(v) are considered.

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